El futuro del trabajo, automatización: ¿máquinas sustituyendo a humanos en sus trabajos?

¿La automatización sustituyendo a los humanos? Vas entre los pasillos de un supermercado, empiezas a buscar una caja vacía en donde realizar tu pago, y en eso te llama la atención aquel módulo que dice “caja exprés”, pero lo que te detiene no son los letreros, sino que no hay nadie que te atienda, es una caja de autoservicio.

Aunque la automatización no es un tema nuevo. Uno de los primeros cambios revolucionarios fueron los cajeros automáticos, en su momento pusieron a temblar a los que trabajaban ahí, pero en realidad sólo cambiaron ciertos puestos y actividades.

Desde nuestra infancia hemos visto comerciales, películas, y cientos de historias que nos hablan sobre una tecnología avanzada, hologramas por todos lados, carros volando manejándose solos. Haciendo nuestra vida más fácil.

Pero en la actualidad, el tema empieza a estar más presente, y los más afectados son los empleados.

¿Quiénes son los más afectados por la automatización?

Un estudio llamado “The future of employment” realizado por Carl Benedikt y Michael A. Osborne, afirma que la automatización eliminará el 47% de los empleos actuales en los próximos 10 años.

En su investigación, nos dicen que la automatización ayuda a mejorar la productividad de una empresa y reduce costos de producción.

Lo cual, pone en riesgo un gran porcentaje de empleos, sobre todo aquellos que pueden ser manejados por algoritmos.

Al mismo tiempo, en un artículo sobre ¿cómo cambiará el empleo con la automatización?, nos proporcionan una lista de los empleos que sufrirán más cambios:

  • Médicos
  • Banqueros
  • Traductores
  • Recepcionistas
  • Periodistas
  • Televisión
  • Cajeros en comercios

La automatización atrae nuevas tecnologías y, nuevas oportunidades

A más de uno nos ha puesto a pensar, ¿qué pasará si la tecnología nos invade?, la respuesta es mucho, pero de manera positiva.

Enno de Boer, experto en manufactura digital, en un artículo “Robots are making jobs better for workers”, nos dice que la automatización se trata de mejorar la productividad”.

Por lo tanto, la tecnología nos ayuda a mejorar el trabajo de los trabajadores, tomando en cuenta, que estos deberán estar abiertos al cambio.

Por ejemplo, en una fábrica de BMW situada en Alemania, hay más de 2,000 robots que se encargan de ensamblar cada automóvil, pero en la mayoría de las ocasiones a lado de un operador.

Al mismo tiempo, la compañía descubrió que, en detalles más específicos y delicados de cada auto, es necesario hacerlo de forma manual, ya que un robot no cuenta con la sensibilidad y delicadeza de un humano.

Por otro lado, Enno nos menciona que “Darles a las personas acceso a la información es darles poder”.

En muchas fábricas que no cuentan con automatización o no están digitalizadas, cuando hay alguna falla o error, el gerente del área es el encargado de informar dónde se localiza el problema, lo cual no sólo detiene la producción, sino que origina el tener que buscar qué es lo que ésta fallando.

En cambio, aquellas fábricas que ya se encuentran digitalizadas, localizan de forma inmediata el problema, y de esta forma agilizar y facilitar el trabajo de los empleados.

La importancia de la educación

Al emerger un mundo totalmente automatizado, trabajos y procesos que antes eran presenciales y lentos, hoy en cuestión de segundos, puedes obtenerlo, sin importar dónde te encuentres.

Gracias a la digitalización, surgieron escuelas digitales como edX, que ofrece cursos gratis de profesores Harvard, MIT, BID, entre otros.

Plataformas como Udacity, donde se enfocan en cursos de programación y tecnología; o Udemy que es una plataforma de aprendizaje en línea dirigida para adultos profesionistas.

La ventaja del nacimiento de estos modelos de educación, es la facilidad de encontrar opciones de todo tipo y costos, donde miles de personas pueden acceder a ella.

En México, existen varias EdTech que son escuelas enfocadas en educación tecnológica.

Tales como Leaducate, que te ayuda a encontrar tu universidad ideal de acuerdo a tu perfil, necesidades y preferencias; Bedu, donde se encargan del desarrollo de habilidades de programación y de negocios digitales.

El surgimiento de los Coding Bootcamps, que se han convertido en una manera rápida para aprender el código, aunque como el nombre lo dice, requiere de mucho trabajo al ser un método intensivo.

El futuro del trabajo, En mi opinión…

Pienso que no hay que sucumbir al pánico, como bien dice Oppenheimer, “el futuro es esperanzador, pero la transición será difícil”.

Los cambios siempre son buenos, lo que se pondrá a prueba será nuestra capacidad de adaptación, y eso va de la mano con lo mucho que nos preparemos día con día.

Por lo que aprender a cambiar lo tradicional por lo innovador, no deberá ser solo en la tecnológica, sino también un cambio dentro de nosotros.

Así que no tengas miedo, infórmate diario, estate en constante preparación, agradece a lo viejo, y abraza al cambio.

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